Polypeptides (Total 66717 Papers Found)

A related DNA fragment distinct from the epidermal growth factor receptor and ERBB2 genes was detected by reduced stringency hybridization of v-erbB to normal genomic human DNA. Characterization of the cloned DNA fragment mapped the region of v-erbB homology to three exons with closest identity of 64% and 67% to a contiguous region within the tyrosine kinase domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor and ERBB2 proteins, respectively. cDNA cloning revealed a predicted 148-kDa transmembrane p ...
Six members of a multigene family encoding polypeptide constituents of the fucoxanthin, chlorophyll a/c protein complex from female gametophytes of the brown alga Macrocystis pyrifera have been cloned and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequences are very similar to those of fucoxanthin chlorophyll binding proteins (Fcp) from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and exhibit limited homology to chlorophyll a/b binding (Cab) polypeptides from higher plants. The primary translation products f ...
Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps) are a rapidly growing gene family of polyspecific membrane transporters. In rat brain, Oatp1 (gene symbol Slc21a1) and Oatp2 (Slc21a5) are localized at the apical and basolateral domains, respectively, of the choroid plexus epithelium. Furthermore, Oatp2 is strongly expressed at the rat blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study localizes the human OATP (now called OATP-A; SLC21A3) at the BBB in humans. Furthermore, with the Xenopus laevis oocyte system ...
Accumulating evidence suggests that, during translation, nascent chains can form specific interactions with ribosomal exit tunnel to regulate translation and promote initial folding events. The clinically important macrolide antibiotics bind within the exit tunnel and inhibit translation by preventing progression of the nascent chain and inducing peptidyl-tRNA drop-off. Here, we have synthesized amino acid- and peptide-containing macrolides, which are used to demonstrate that distinct amino acid ...
The distribution and density of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) binding sites have been investigated in the brain of the primates Jacchus callithrix (marmoset) and Macaca fascicularis (macaque) using [(125)I]-PACAP27 as a radioligand. PACAP binding sites were widely expressed in the brain of these two species with particularly high densities in the septum, hypothalamus and habenula. A moderate density of recognition sites was seen in all subdivisions of the cerebral co ...
We report the isolation of a Coccidioides immitis gene (SOWgp) which encodes an immunodominant, spherule outer wall glycoprotein that is presented as a component of a parasitic phase-specific, membranous layer at the cell surface. The open reading frame of the gene from C. immitis isolate C735 translates a 422-amino-acid (aa) polypeptide that contains 6 copies of a 41- to 47-residue tandem repeat enriched in proline (20.4 mol%) and aspartate (19.7%). Two additional isolates of C. immitis produce ...
Molecular cloning and characterisation of a human nuclear protein designated BM28 is reported. On the amino acid level this 892 amino acid protein, migrating on SDS-gels as a 125 kDa polypeptide, shares areas of significant similarity with a recently defined family of early S phase proteins. The members of this family, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm2p, Mcm3p, Cdc46p/Mcm5p, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cdc21p and the mouse protein P1 are considered to be involved in the onset of DNA replicatio ...
Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), the primary member of HSPs that are responsive of thermal stress, is found in all multicellular organisms and functions mostly as molecular chaperon. The inducible HSP70 cDNA cloned from Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), was highly homologous to other HSP70 genes. The full-length cDNA of the Pacific abalone HSP70 was 2631bp, consisting of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 90bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 573b ...
Zn-dependent carboxypeptidases (ZnCP) cleave off the C-terminal amino acid residues from proteins and peptides. Here we describe a superfamily that unites classical ZnCP with other enzymes, most of which are known (or likely) to participate in metal-dependent peptide bond cleavage, but not necessarily in polypeptide substrates. It is demonstrated that aspartoacylase (ASP gene) and succinylglutamate desuccinylase (ASTE gene) are members of the ZnCP family. The Zn-binding site along with the struc ...
Hepatocyte Growth Factor, also known as Scatter Factor, is a polypeptide that shows structural homology with enzymes of the blood coagulation cascade. It is a biologically inactive single chain precursor that is then cleaved by specific serine proteases to a fully active alphabeta heterodimer. All the biological responses induced by HGF/SF are elicited by binding to its receptor, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase encoded by the MET proto-oncogene. The signaling cascade triggered by HGF begins with ...
Because of the enormous growth over the last three decades of research on the role of peptides in the brain, the need became apparent to determine the status of these compounds in terms of their current research interest. Since 1965, over a quarter of a million research papers have been published on peptides that have since been classified as neuroactive. The present study was undertaken to analyze systematically the yearly trends of research emphasis in neuroactive peptides as reflected by thei ...
Aspergillus nidulans possessed an alpha-glucosidase with strong transglycosylation activity. The enzyme, designated alpha-glucosidase B (AgdB), was purified and characterized. AgdB was a heterodimeric protein comprising 74- and 55-kDa subunits and catalyzed hydrolysis of maltose along with formation of isomaltose and panose. Approximately 50% of maltose was converted to isomaltose, panose, and other minor transglycosylation products by AgdB, even at low maltose concentrations. The agdB gene was ...
Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is a potent mitogenic polypeptide. It is secreted by a variety of transformed cells and tumors, modifying tumor growth through autocrine or paracrine mechanism. In the present study, serum levels of TGF-alpha were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 27 normal females, 116 patients with benign ovarian tumors, and 42 patients with epithelial ovarian cancers (10 with stage I, 7 with stage II, 19 with stage III, and 6 with stage IV) ...
Developmental patterns of immunoreactivity for the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) and alpha 2.8-linked polysialic acid (PSA) were identified in embryonic and postnatal rat heart by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Polyclonal antibodies against N-CAM and a monoclonal antibody which recognises only polymers of PSA with a chain length greater than eight units were used. Gold- and alkaline-phosphatase-labelled antibodies were used for detection. The N-CAM polypeptide isoform pattern se ...
The four-component polypeptides of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complex from the thermophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum assemble to give an active multienzyme complex possessing activity with the branched-chain 2-oxoacids derived from leucine, isoleucine and valine, and with pyruvate. The dihydrolipoyl acyl-transferase (E2) core of the complex is composed of identical trimer-forming units that assemble into a novel 42-mer structure comprising octahedral and icosahedral geometric aspects. ...
Rat serum mannose-binding protein (MBP-A) functions as part of the innate immune system by targetting complement toward potentially pathogenic microorganisms. In order to examine the molecular basis for complement activation, rat MBP-A has been overproduced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Recombinant protein is post-translationally modified in the same way as the native lectin. Hydrodynamic studies indicate that MBP-A consists predominantly of covalent oligomers containing one to four copies of ...
We have reported that bovine lactoferrin (bLf) promotes the contractile activity of collagen gels by WI-38 human fibroblasts via the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC). To identify the region of bLf that is responsible for this activity, we prepared bLf fragments by limited proteolysis using trypsin and investigated the effects of each fragment on gel contractile activity. Lf consists of a single polypeptide chain containing two lobes that are independent globular structures termed the ...
We have mapped a minor spliced transcript with mRNA properties which is derived from the capsid gene promoter (P40) of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) genome. By S1 nuclease mapping as well as primer extension analysis this mRNA was found to occur by splicing at the same donor site (nucleotide, NT 1907) but at an alternative acceptor site when compared to the major, 2.3-kb spliced P40 transcript which encodes two of the three AAV capsid proteins, namely VP2 and VP3. This minor acceptor site is ...
Recently, we reported on tyrosine phosphorylation of distinct cellular proteins in the course of enterovirus infections (M. Huber, H.-C. Selinka, and R. Kandolf, J. Virol. 71:595-600, 1997). These phosphorylation events were mediated by Src-like kinases and were shown to be necessary for effective virus replication. That study is now extended by examination of the interaction of the adapter protein Sam68, a cellular target of Src-like kinases which has been shown to interact with the poliovirus ...
The McrBC restriction system has the ability to restrict DNA containing 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, N4-methylcytosine, and 5-methylcytosine at specific sequences. The mcrB gene produces two gene products. The complete mcrB open reading frame produces a 51-kDa protein (McrB(L)) and a 33-kDa protein (McrB(S)). The smaller McrB polypeptide is produced from an in-frame, internal translational start site in the mcrB gene. The McrB(S) sequence is identical to that of McrB(L) except that it lacks 161 amin ...
Protein composition and native state of chlorophylls were analyzed in two wheat (Triticum durum L.) genotypes with different tolerance to drought, Barakatli-95 (drought-tolerant) and Garagylchyg-2 (drought-sensitive), during water deficit. It is shown that the plants subjected to water deficit appear to have a slight increase in α-and β-subunits of CF1ATP-synthase complex (57.5 and 55 kD, respectively) in Barakatli-95 and their lower content in Garagylchyg-2. Steady-state levels of the core an ...
We have determined the physical location of the ilvEDAC genes on the restriction cleavage map of the ilv region of Escherichia coli K-12 by two methods: (i) heteroduplex and endonuclease cleavage analysis of hybrid phages carrying genetically defined parts of the ilv cluster and (ii) complementation analysis and enzyme assays to determine ilv gene expression from hybrid plasmids containing DNA restriction fragments of the transducing phage lambdah80dilv. The ilvEDA and ilvC operons occupy 2.4 an ...
Two polypeptides (M1 and M2) which co-sediment with F-actin in an ATP-reversible way have been detected in extracts of tissue from the rabbit visual system. Both polypeptides resemble skeletal muscle myosin in their ATP-sensitive co-sedimentation with actin, while they resemble the heavy chain of myosin and the lighter polypeptide of erythrocyte spectrin in their electrophoretic mobilities. (The estimated molecular weights are: MI congruent to 195,000; myosin congruent 200,000; M2 and spectrin c ...
Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen (TPS) may soon be routinely used as a proliferation marker in adult epithelial tumors. So far, no data have been available on normal or pathologic TPS values in children. Therefore the present study was designed to test the marker for the first time in pediatric malignancies. Using a commercial ELISA kit (Beki Diagnostics), serum TPS levels were determined in 270 healthy children and compared with various benign (n = 143) and malignant (n = 58) diseases. In he ...
Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide isolated from rat stomach. In the present study, we report expression of a ghrelin gene-derived transcript (GGDT) in the mouse testis. Analysis of GGDT cDNA revealed that the 68 bp sequence at the 5'-end was unique and the remaining 252 bp sequence was identical with the sequence encoded by exons 4 and 5 of mouse ghrelin gene. The 5'-unique sequence encoded 12 amino acid residues being in-frame with the C-terminal 42 amino acid sequence of mous ...
Since O'Farrell (1) introduced the improved technique for high resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), it has become one of the most powerful tools for the separation and quantification of proteins from complex mixtures. The principal reason for this is that the method employs separation of denatured proteins according to two different parameters, molecular weight and isoelectric point. Consequently, it has sufficient resolution to separate individual proteins a ...
Plasmodesmata, dynamic pore structures that traverse plant cell walls, function in cytoplasmic transport between contiguous cells. Cell walls containing embedded plasmodesmata were isolated from mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings. Proteins associated with the isolated walls were separated by SDS-PAGE and antibodies were generated against a 41 kDa protein, one of several associated with this wall fraction. Immunoblot analysis showed that the 41 kDa polypeptide was also associated with other ...
RATIONALE Mass calibration in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is currently obtained using mixtures of individual peptides. This procedure has several drawbacks, including laborious preparation, limited shelf life and unequal calibration mass spacing. Polyalanine, a simple to prepare polydisperse molar mass standard, alleviates these problems. METHODS Polyalanine is prepared by the typical protocols for biological sample analytics. RESULTS Polyalanine ...
Oxidation of toad urinary bladder epithelial cell membranes by periodate in the bathing medium altered vasopressin-stimulated transport of urea or of water and sodium depending on whether periodate bathed the mucosal or serosal surface. Subsequent reduction with tritiated borohydride was then used to label the oxidized cell membrane components. I found that: 1. Vasopressin or adenosine-3′, 5′-monophosphate-stimulated urea transport was inhibited after bladders had been exposed to NaIO4 in th ...
Ghrelin, an acylated 28-amino acid polypeptide, was primary isolated from the stomach, and the stomach is a main source of circulating ghrelin. Ghrelin strongly and dose-dependently stimulates release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary, as well as increases food intake and fat deposition. Previous studies showed that ghrelin exhibits protective and therapeutic effect in different parts of the gastrointestinal system, including the oral cavity. The aim of present study was to examine t ...
Ephrin A2 receptor (EphA2) plays a key role in cancer, it is up-regulated in several types of tumors and the process of ligand-induced receptor endocytosis, followed by degradation, is considered as a potential path to diminish tumor malignancy. Protein modulators of this mechanism are recruited at the cytosolic Sterile alpha motif (Sam) domain of EphA2 (EphA2-Sam) through heterotypic Sam-Sam associations. These interactions engage the C-terminal helix of EphA2 and close loop regions (the so cal ...
Aqueous complexes of PEY1, a 36 100 Da random synthetic peptide of tyrosine (50 mol %) and glutamic acid (50 mol %), with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were studied as functions of PEO molecular weight, mixing ratio of PEO and PEY1, and the presence of calcium ions. Without calcium ions, the complexes were water soluble, with each complex consisting of a single PEO chain with many bound PEY1 chains. In the presence of 1 mM calcium ions, PEY1 formed colloidal aggregates with intermediate molecular w ...
Binding proteins for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been purified from C57B1/6J mouse liver. Following affinity chromatography on aminopyrene-Sepharose, a single polypeptide of 29,000 daltons was isolated. The photolabile compound 1-azidopyrene was developed as a photoaffinity labeling agent to identify the protein during its purification. 1-Azidopyrene was found to be a competitive inhibitor of [3H]B[a]P binding. Affinity labeling studies with [3H]-1- ...
MOV10 protein has ATP-dependent 5′–3′ RNA helicase activity and belongs to the UPF1p superfamily. It can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication at multiple stages and interact with apolipoprotein-B-mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G or A3G), a member of the cytidine deaminase family that exerts potent inhibitory effects against HIV-1 infection. However, HIV-1-encoded virion infectivity factor (Vif) protein specifically mediates the degrad ...
The appearance of the parvalbumin Eu3+ 7F0-->5D0 spectrum is markedly pH dependent, the result of a hitherto unidentified deprotonation event in the CD ion-binding domain [Treviño, C.L., et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 9694-9700]. We are studying this phenomenon in the mammalian placental parvalbumin called oncomodulin. As in other parvalbumins, the liganding residues in the CD and EF sites of oncomodulin differ at the +z and -x coordination positions: serine and aspartate, respectively, i ...
Tissue Polypeptide Antigen (TPA)*** which is a protein isolated from e.g. human carcinoma cells, has previously been separated into subfractions and studied with biochemical methods. Gel diffusion studies show that the antigenic determinants are retained through the isolation and purification procedures. Specific modifications of the amino acid residues lysine, tyrosine, trytophan and arginine in subfraction B1 have been related to the change in the capacity of the antigen to bind to horse anti- ...
In the present study, pathways of growth of protein structures represented in the structural tree for β-proteins containing 3β-corners are analyzed. It is shown that the frequency of occurrence of the completed structures of known proteins within branches of the tree is quite different. This means that allowed pathways of growth of protein structures are not equal and their usage is quite different. In most cases, addition of one or two β-strands nearest along the chain to the root 3β-corner ...
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum specimens from patients with presumed herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) were characterized for antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) by immunoblot and other immunoassays. Specimens from patients proven to have HSE (biopsy-proven) were compared with those from patients with other diseases diagnosed by brain biopsy (biopsy-negative for HSV). Immunoblot of CSF demonstrated that antibodies to HSV-specific polypeptides, particularly to glycoprotein B, were prese ...
Plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) were studied in a group of 22 normal and 22 obese subjects after an overnight fast. In a second group of 10 normal and 13 obese adults, PP secretion was stimulated by a protein-rich meal. The results indicate lower fasting PP values in the obese subjects and a decreased response during the second phase of the meal-induced secretion. This could suggest a possible role of PP in obesity. ...
Smoking leads to a higher incidence of peptic ulcer and delays healing of those ulcers. Possible mechanisms include increased gastric acid secretion, reduced gastric mucosal blood flow, and reduced duodenal bicarbonate production. In six subjects we determined the effect of one hour of cigarette smoking on gastric mucosal blood flow (14C-aminopyrine clearance), acid secretion (triple lumen perfused oro-gastric tube), and plasma levels of gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide. Smoking reduced acid s ...
BACKGROUND Chronic inflammation of psoriatic lesions may be due to an exaggerated innate immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed by keratinocytes in psoriasis. Antikeratin 16 autoantibodies (AK16 autoAbs) are increased in serum from patients with psoriasis. Whether the elevated AK16 autoAbs play a role in psoriasis by exaggerating innate immune response is still unknown. OBJECTIVE To prove that AK16 autoAbs are involved in psoriasis, by exaggerating the innate immune response ...
AlphaB-crystallin, a small heat-shock protein, has been shown to prevent the aggregation of other proteins under various stress conditions. Here we have cloned the cDNA and the genomic sequence of CRYAB gene from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using RT-PCR technology and Touchdown-PCR, respectively. The length of cDNA fragment cloned contains an open reading frame of 528bp encoding 175 amino acids and the length of the genomic sequence is 3189bp, containing three exons and two introns. ...
Binding proteins in neuronal membranes for a phospholipase A2 with presynaptic neurotoxicity have been purified. Three polypeptides of 87, 65, and 50 K Da were obtained from the synaptic membrane fraction of guinea pig brain utilizing an immobilized crotoxin (a phospholipase A2) column. For large scale purification, porcine brain was used instead, and two polypeptides of 50 and 18 K Da were found. The 65 and 18 K polypeptides may represent hitherto unidentified components of the crotoxin-binding ...
Preparations of recombinant bovine calbindin D9k (r-calbindin) that appear homogeneous on SDS electrophoresis gels have been shown by isoelectric focusing to be mixtures of proteins differing in net charge. The production of two isoforms with increased negative charge occurs during a routine urea denaturation step and can be effectively suppressed by replacing this procedure with thermal denaturation. The two isoforms have been separated from the native protein by DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chro ...
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) were recently identified as having significant clinical potential in reversing β-cell functional inhibition caused by inflammation, a shared precursor of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. However, HDACi are highly complex and little is known of their direct effect on important cell secretion pathways for blood glucose regulation. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of HDACi on insulin secretion from β-cells, GLP-1 secretion from L-cells ...
A high molecular form of bovine factor X has been isolated from freshly collected bovine blood by BaSO4 absorption, exhaustive washing with 0.001 M BaCl2 and chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose column employing a linear salt gradient. This isolated factor X showed a single protein band on analytical polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. Only one single protein peak was observed in the chromatogram of DEAE-Sephadex A-50 chromatography conducted at 3 degrees C. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis ...
Glycation is the reaction of carbonyl compounds (reducing sugars and α-dicarbonyls) with amino acids, lipids, and proteins, yielding early and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The AGEs can be formed via degradation of early glycation intermediates (glycoxidation) and by interaction with the products of monosaccharide autoxidation (autoxidative glycosylation). Although formation of these potentially deleterious compounds is well characterized in animal systems and thermally treated foods, ...